Geology is the scientific study of the Earth. The field of geology encompasses the study of the composition, structure, physical properties, dynamics, and history of Earth and the processes by which they are formed, moved, and changed. The field is a major academic discipline and is also important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and extraction, knowledge about and mitigation of natural hazards, some engineering fields, and understanding past climates and environments.
The application of geology is seen in everyday life. All around of us we see hills and valleys, rivers, seas and coastlines, rocks and soils . Geology tells why these things are there and how they are formed.
Some of the branches of Geology are:
Physical Geology (Study of Physical forms, physical processes of earth)
Mineralogy (Study of Minerals)
Petrology (Study of Rocks)
Structural Geology (Study of structure of the earth)
Palaeontology ( Study of fossils)
Stratigraphy (Study of geological strata and establishing order of superposition)
Geochronology (Measurement of geological time)
Hydrogeology (Study of ground water)
Seismology (Study of earthquakes)
Volcanolgy (Study of Volanoes)
Specialisation can be done in any of the above fields.
Now there is a scarcity for geologists. Recently the Secretary, Ministry of Mines, Government of India stated that there is a requirement of 300 geologists a year but the availability is less than 100. The Central Government has plans to introduce reforms in mining sector to attract huge investments. The job prospects for geologists in the private sector is going to increase when the New National Mineral Policy is implemented. The Secretary General of Federation of Indian Mineral Industries has stated that the shortage of geologists is not only in India but also world-wide. Hence there is good scope for geologists in the country as well as in other countries.
Job opportunities in Geology
Post Graduates (M Sc/M Tech) in Geology or Applied Geology have openings in Government Departments, Public Sector Undertakings, Universities and Private companies some of which are described below:
- 1. Geological Survey of India, GSI, (Under Ministry of Mines):
Recruits Geologists in the grade of Junior Geologist (Group A, Gazetted) and Assistant Geologist (Group B, Gazetted) through Geologist’s Exam conducted by UPSC.
- 2. Central Ground Water Board, CGWB, (Under Ministry of Agriculture):
Recruits Hydrogeologists in the grade of Junior Hydrogeologist (Group A, Gazetted) and Assistant Hydrogeologist (Group B, Gazetted) through Geologist’s Exam conducted by UPSC.
- 3. Atomic Minerals Division, AMD, (Under Department of Atomic Energy):
Recruits Geologists in the grade of Geologists (Group A, Gazetted) through their own recruitment examinations.
- Postgraduates in Geo informatics can be absorbed in NRSA(National Remote Sensing Agency), Hyderabad and Remote Sensing Departments of State Governments.
- Students with specialization in Marine Geology (MSc) can opt a career in NIO (National Institute of Oceanography), Goa.
Pay Scale: Group A posts carry the pay scale of Rs.15600-39100 with grade pay Rs.5400 (Pay band -3) at the entry level.
Group B posts carry the pay scale of Rs.9300-34800 with grade pay Rs.4800 (Pay band -2) in the beginning.
Government undertakings like ONGC, National Mineral Development Corporation (NMDC) and Coal India Limited (CIL) recruit Geologists through their own examinations.
Department of Mines and Geology and Ground Water departments of State Governments recruit Geologists / Hydro-geologists through State PSC examinations.
Private Companies engaged in mineral exploration, oil exploration and mining industry recruit geologists.
Geologists who are interested in environmental sciences can work as consultants in the field of environmental compliance.
The students interested in teaching and research can join Universities or IITs. A doctorate degree in Geology or Applied Geology is essential for teaching posts in Universities and IITs.
Marine & Coastal Surveys Division,
Geological Survey of India